About human brain and its functions

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The human brain is ultimately responsible for all thought and movement that the body produces. This allows humans to successfully interact with their environment, by communicating with others and interacting with inanimate objects near their position. If the brain is not functioning properly, the ability to move, generate accurate sensory information or speak and understand language can be damaged as well.

The brain is made up of nerve cells which interact with the rest of the body through the spinal cord and nervous system. These cells relate information back to specific centers of the brain where it can be processed and an appropriate reaction can be generated. Several chemicals are also located in the brain, which help the body maintain homeostasis, or a sense of overall comfort and calm as its basic needs are met. Keeping these chemicals balanced and the nerve cells firing properly are essential to healthy brain function.

Cerebrum

The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain, and contains tools which are responsible for most of the brain's function. It is divided into four sections: the temporal lobe, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe and frontal lobe. The cerebrum is divided into a right and left hemisphere which are connected by axons that relay messages from one to the other. This matter is made of nerve cells which carry signals between the organ and the nerve cells which run through the body.

Frontal Lobe The frontal lobe is one of four lobes in the cerebral hemisphere. This lobe controls a several elements including creative thought, problem solving, intellect, judgment, behavior, attention, abstract thinking, physical reactions, muscle movements, coordinated movements, smell and personality.

Parietal LobLocated in the cerebral hemisphere, this lobe focuses on comprehension. Visual functions, language, reading, internal stimuli, tactile sensation and sensory comprehension will be monitored here.

  • Sensory Cortex The sensory cortex, located in the front portion of the parietal lobe, receives information relayed from the spinal cord regarding the position of various body parts and how they are moving. This middle area of the brain can also be used to relay information from the sense of touch, including pain or pressure which is affecting different portions of the body.
  • Motor Cortex This helps the brain monitor and control movement throughout the body. It is located in the top, middle portion of the brain.

Temporal Lobe The temporal lobe controls visual and auditory memories. It includes areas that help manage some speech and hearing capabilities, behavioral elements, and language. It is located in the cerebral hemisphere.

  • Wernicke's Area This portion of the temporal lobe is formed around the auditory cortex. While scientists have a limited understanding of the function of this area, it is known that it helps the body formulate or understand speech.

Occipital Lobe The optical lobe is located in the cerebral hemisphere in the back of the head. It helps to control vision.

  • Broca's Area This area of the brain controls the facial neurons as well as the understanding of speech and language. It is located in the triangular and opercular section of the inferior frontal gyrus.

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