Human Brain Project artificial intelligence
In a scenario in which institutions and individuals have to fight in an increasingly harsh way to grab the (few) research funds, the recent news of the European Union to include the Human Brain Project in the FET has outraged the ‚Äúflagship projects‚ÄĚ for the next decade. Surprise struck also for the consequent money allocation: one billion euros in ten years to create a complete simulation of the human brain through a network of supercomputers.
This project has been seen as an unrealistically attainable goal, or even an ill-posed problem, but this and other similar projects do not come from nowhere . They have about 50 years of history behind, collected in the discipline known as Artificial Intelligence (AI).
The beginning of AI is commonly set, almost in a concordant way, in 1956, the year in which a workshop in Dartmouth in New Hampshire (USA) was held by the American mathematician John McCarthy. It was attended by scientists like Claude Shannon and Marvin Minsky, both belonging to the world of engineering and logical-mathematical sciences, but also Herbert Simon, an economist and future Nobel laureate, computer like Allen Newell and others. The agenda of the event was organized around ‚Äúsimple‚ÄĚ topics: the development of a ‚Äúconjecture, in which all the aspects related to learning and to the analysis of intelligence can be precisely described, or simulated by a computer‚ÄĚ.
The years from 1956 to the mid-60s (conventionally to 1966 when the federal government of the United States cut fundings for AI, judging the results produced hitherto largely disappointing ) may be associated with an early period. The attention here is focused on software implementations parser type or finite state automate for the handling of strings (ie sequences of symbols). The main results obtained focused primarily on the automatic resolution of mathematical problems, and it seems necessary to mention the software ‚ÄúLogic Theorist‚ÄĚ created by Herbert Simon and Allen Newell, which was able to solve most of the theorems present in the ‚ÄúPrincipia Mathematica‚ÄĚ of Russell and Whitehead. The main failures, however, came from the understanding of natural languages. Nevertheless, remarkable results were achieved by the program‚Äôs psychologist Joseph Weizenbaum‚Äôs ELIZA and software Shrdlu developed by Terry Winograd.
From the ashes of the first approach, a second wave was born, that of expert systems . As the previous, also this project was concerning softwares but the basic concept was very innovative: it overcome the idea that the programmer had to explicitly encode all possible strategies. To do this, it was necessary to emulate what was happening with human experts of various subjects (about which they know a good number of rules, but also the appropriate cognitive schemas to make extrapolations) and the new software came with two key components.
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What are the differences between human intelligence and artificial intelligence?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines. At this point AI tries to replicate Human intelligence as the property of mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the capacities to reason, plan, problem solve, think, comprehend ideas, use languages, and learn.
how could i hammer 3hundred millions' vocabularies into my brain as an artificial intelligence human? | Yahoo Answers
Hi. First question, eh? AI would enable any, repeat ANY, number of ideas to form. "But you knew that" as the oracle said.