Various Parts of Human body

If you compare a sky scraper with a human body, you see that the 3 layers of skin are the paint, the plaster, and then the bricks. All the steel bars and joints and other construction material are like its organs.

Human anatomy! It is a scientific study of human body systems and the internal organs. Cells are the building blocks of a human life. Together they make tissues and a group of tissues makes an organ that performs a specific task. And not to forget, that each organ plays an important role in a body system.

Top 10 important organs of the human body are:

1. Brain

This organ is the master of all the actions and the organs of a human body. It is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. In humans the largest part of the brain contains 15–33 billion brain cells known as neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long fibers called axons, carrying trains of signal pulses to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific cells.

Its functions are:

• Information processing

• Perception

• Movement control

• Arousal

• Homeostasis

• Motivation

• Learning and memory

Diseases related to brain are:

• Meningitis – An inflammation of the lining around the brain or spinal cord, usually due to infection. Neck pain, headache, and confusion are common symptoms.

• Encephalitis – An inflammation of the brain tissue, usually due to infection.

• Brain abscess – A pocket of infection in the brain, usually caused by bacteria.

• Concussion – A brain injury that causes a temporary disturbance in brain function, sometimes with unconsciousness and confusion. Traumatic head injuries cause concussions.

• Any bleeding inside the brain, which may occur after a traumatic injury or due to high blood pressure.

• Brain tumor – Any abnormal tissue growth inside the brain, cause problems by the pressure they exert on the normal brain.

• Brain cancer

• An abnormally increased amount of brain fluid inside the skull because of improper circulation of the fluid.

• Stroke – Blood flow and oxygen are suddenly interrupted to an area of brain tissue, which then dies. The body part controlled by the damaged brain area may no longer function properly.

• Ischemic stroke – A blood clot suddenly develops in an artery, blocking blood flow and causing a stroke.

• Hemorrhagic stroke – Bleeding in the brain creates congestion and pressure on brain tissue, impairing healthy blood flow and causing a stroke.

• Transient ischemic attack – A temporary interruption of blood flow and oxygen to a part of the brain.

2. Heart

Another important organ of the human body without which human survival is next to impossible. It acts like pump circulating blood in the body. Blood containing carbon dioxide is provided to lungs for the exchange of gases where as blood containing oxygen is supplied to the human body through veins. It weighs 250 – 350 grams and is about the size of a fist.

• Enlarged Heart – usually caused by high blood pressure (hypertension) or coronary artery disease.

• Heart Attack

• Irregular Heart Rhythm

• Atrial Fibrillation – irregular heart beat

• Heart Rhythm Disorders – Irregular heart rhythms can cause the pumping function of the heart to fail.

• Heart Valve Disease

• Sudden Cardiac Death

• Congenital Heart Disease

• Heart Muscle Disease

• Fluid around the heart can be caused by various types of infections. This fluid can impair heart function.

• Marfan syndrome – This inherited genetic defect weakens connective tissues including those in the heart.

• Heart Murmurs caused due to flow of blood from a damaged valve.

3. Lungs

Being the most important organ related to respiratory system, these lungs are located on the either sides of the heart. They are like air bags. Breathing in, expands them and breathing out contracts them.

Their function is to exchange oxygen with the carbon dioxide present in blood.

• Asthma

• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- Lung conditions defined by an inability to exhale normally, which causes difficulty breathing.

• Lung damage allows air to be trapped in the lungs. Difficulty blowing air out is its hallmark.

• Acute bronchitis – A sudden infection of the airways, usually by a virus.

• Cystic fibrosis – A genetic condition causing poor clearance of mucus from the bronchi. The accumulated mucus results in repeated lung infections.

• Pneumonia – An infection of the alveoli, usually by bacteria.

• Tuberculosis – A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by the bacteria.

• Emphysema – results from damage to the fragile connections between alveoli. Smoking is the usual cause.

• Fluids leak out of the small blood vessels of the lung into the air sacs and the surrounding area.

• Lung cancer has many forms, and may develop in any part of the lungs. Most often this is in the main part of the lung, in or near the air sacs.

4. Liver

It is a vital organ and existence of a human without liver is next to impossible. Thought technology has created some short term substitutes of liver, but for long term, research is still in process.

Liver has many functions:

• Detoxification of food

• Protein synthesis

• Hormone production

• Decomposition of red blood cells

Liver entertains many bio-chemical reactions that are important for function of a body and that why it always better not to drink too much alcohol.

Diseases related to liver are:

• Pale stools occur when a brown pigment, is absent from the stool.

• Dark urine

• Jaundice

• Swelling of the abdomen, ankles and feet

• Excessive fatigue occurs from a generalized loss of nutrients, minerals and vitamins.

• Bruising and easy bleeding are other features of liver disease. The liver makes substances which help prevent bleeding. When liver damage occurs, these substances are no longer present and severe bleeding can occur.

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