Cerebellum VS cerebrum

Difference between Cerebrum
Discovering common origins between cell masses of bird and mammal brains is something like trying to understand continental drift during geologic time on the earth. Masses of cells, like continents or parts of continents, moved gradually over evolutionary time. "Nerve cell drifts" in birds and mammals followed different plans in three dimensions.



Nerve cells in the mammal cerebral neocortex are stacked like layers in plywood (left, above) while those in the bird cerebrum are clumped in nuclei, crowded together, rather like cloves in a large garlic bulb (right, above). The diagrams have been borrowed from a paper of Clifton Ragsdale and colleagues.3

How should we relate layers to clumps? What nerve cells in birds correspond to what cells in mammals? How did ancestral nerve cell types get scrambled differently as the brains of birds and of mammals evolved in parallel? Reconciling the discrepancies proved daunting.

In the absence of ancient mummified brains, scientists looked carefully at the development of brains in embryos. The observations were subject to many interpretations. Over decades, various theories were advanced but none was universally accepted.

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