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Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.

However, it should also be noted that recent advances in the field have expanded its scope as the distinction between “psychiatric” disease and “medical” disorders has begun to blur. It is now widely recognized that psychiatric disease is an independent risk factor in the etiology of many disease states and disorders that have traditionally been the viewed as “medical” disorders. For example, depression is now known to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders also plays a role in the iatrogenic etiology of medical disease. (for example, Diabetes Mellitus, cardiac arrhythmias, and Hypertension).

This volume on Psychiatry is currently in the initial stages of development. Further development will be a project of the Educational Taskforce of the World Psychiatric Association.

Timeline in Psychiatry[edit]

1550 BC The Ebers papyrus, one of the most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, briefly mentioned clinical depression.

4th century BC Hippocrates theorized that physiological abnormalities may be the root of mental disorders.

280 BC Greek physician and philosopher Herophilus studies the nervous system and distinguishes between sensory nerves and motor nerves.

250 BC Greek anatomist Erasistratus studies the brain and distinguishes between the cerebrum and cerebellum.

705 The first psychiatric hospital was built in Baghdad.

11th century Persian physician Avicenna recognized 'physiological psychology' in the treatment of illnesses involving emotions, and developed a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings.

13th century Bethlem Royal Hospital in London, one of the famous oldest psychiatric hospitals, was set up.

1590 Scholastic philosopher Rudolph Goclenius used the term psychology. Though often regarded as the "origin" of the term, there is conclusive evidence that it was used at least six decades earlier by Marko Maruliæ.

1656 Louis XIV of France created a public system of hospitals for those suffering from mental disorders.

1672 In English physician Thomas Willis' anatomical treatise "De Anima Brutorum", Psychology was described in terms of Brain Function.

1758 English physician William Battie wrote the Treatise on Madness which called for treatments to be utilized in asylums.

1808 Dr. Johann Christian Reil, German physician, anatomist, physiologist and psychiatrist, coined the term 'Psychiatry'.

1816 French physician Dr. Rene Laennec invented the Stethoscope.

1821 The element of Lithium was first isolated from Lithium Oxide and described by William Thomas Brande, an English chemist.

1893 Dr. Emil Kraeplin defined "Dementia Praecox", currently Schizophrenia.

1895 German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered medical use of X- rays in medical imaging and was conferred the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

1899 Dr. Sigmund Freud published 'The interpretation of dreams'.

1901 Dr. Alois Alzheimer, German psychiatrist and neuropathologist, identified the first case of what later became known as Alzheimer's disease.

1901 Austrian biologist and physician, Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovered the existence of different human blood types and in 1930, he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

1905 French Psychologists Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon created the Binet-Simon scale to assess intellectual ability, marking the start for standardized psychological testing.

1906 Dr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician, published first Conditioning studies.

1908 The word schizophrenia was coined by Dr. Paul Eugen Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist.

1929 Dr. Hans Berger, German neuropsychiatrist, discovered human electroencephalography.

1934 Dr. Manfred Joshua Sakel, Polish neurophysiologist and psychiatrist, introduced insulin shock therapy; a precursor to ECT.

1936 Otto Loewi, Austrian-German-American pharmacologist, won the 1936 Nobel Prize in Medicine, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, for his discovery of Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be described.

1938 Dr.Ugo Cerletti, Italian neurologist and Dr. Lucio Bini, Italian psychiatrist, discovered Electroconvulsive Therapy.

1948 Lithium carbonate's ability to stabilize mood highs and lows in bipolar disorder was demonstrated.

1949 Dr. Antonio Egaz Moniz, neurologist at the Lisbon Medical School won Nobel prize for his work on psychosurgery / lobotomy.

1952 The first published clinical trial of Chlorpromazine was conducted at Ste. Anne Hôspital in Paris.

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Q&A

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How do I schedule a mental status evaluation? | Yahoo Answers

John ... start by seeing your regular physician. They will give you a full blood workup checking for things like blood sugar disorders and glandular problems. If they don't find anything, then see a psychiatrist for diagnosis and treatment. There are very good medicines today to treat most mental disorders and well as therapy once the medication(s) take effect. Take care of yourself by eating healthy, doing cardio exercise and getting quality sleep, which are also needed for positive brain chemistry. Chip

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