Mini Mental Status Exam form Spanish

State Examination (MMSE)

Mini-Mental State Examination and Mattis Dementia Rating Scale performance differs in Hispanic and non-Hispanic Alzheimer's disease patients

URSULA HOHL a1a2, MICHAEL GRUNDMAN a1a2, DAVID P. SALMON a1, RONALD G. THOMAS a1a3 and LEON J. THAL a1a2
a1 Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine and VA San Diego Healthcare System
a2 Department of Neurology, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine and VA San Diego Healthcare System
a3 Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine and VA San Diego Healthcare System

Abstract

Little information exists regarding the performance of Spanish-speaking versus English-speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. In an attempt to identify culturally biased MMSE items or DRS subscales, we matched Spanish-speaking Hispanic and English-speaking non-Hispanic White community-dwelling AD patients by their MMSE scores and examined specific items within each scale. Our findings indicate that Hispanic AD patients perform significantly worse than non-Hispanics in terms of total DRS score, scores on the DRS subscales for Conceptualization and Memory, and on serial subtraction (or backward spelling item) of the MMSE. While mildly to moderately demented Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients obtained comparable scores on the DRS, severely impaired Spanish-speaking participants obtained considerably lower DRS scores than their English-speaking counterparts. The discrepancy in the DRS scores of the severely impaired Hispanic and non-Hispanic examinees might reflect a cultural bias in the test or educational differences between the groups. Alternatively, the DRS may be more sensitive than the MMSE for detecting severe cognitive impairment in Hispanic patients. (JINS, 1999, 5, 301–307.)

Key Words: Spanish-Speaking; Alzheimer; Mini-Mental State Examination; Mattis Dementia Rating Scale.
Correspondence:
c1 Reprint requests to: Ursula Hohl, Geriatric University Clinic, Kantonsspital Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland

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Q&A

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Which mini-mental state exam items can be used to screen for delirium and cognitive impairment?

Cognitive impairment is common in palliative care patients, but it is frequently undetected. The clinical consequence is that psychiatric states such as delirium, which often present with cognitive impairment, are inadequately treated. A short and simple questionnaire for screening of cognitive impairment is required for these patients, in order to proceed with more advanced testing if necessary. In this study, we explored the results from two samples of patients (n=290 and n=217) who had completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cases of cognitive impairment are considered i…

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What is mini mental state exam?

Mini Mental State Exam: Test to diagnose mental status.

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