Modified Mini Mental Status Exam

Of Modified Mini-Mental

The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) was developed to overcome shortcomings of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE), specifically its narrow range of possible scores and ceiling effects. Several studies have examined the psychometric characteristics of the 3MS, showing an improvement in reliability and increased sensitivity in detecting dementia in comparison to the MMSE. Despite research supporting the favorable psychometric features of the 3MS, the clinical value of the instrument is restricted by limited normative data, especially for the elderly population. In this study, we examine the influence of demographic characteristics on 3MS scores and present descriptive data for a sample of 393 community-dwelling older adults. Normative data, based on age and with adjustments for education, are provided for clinical use.


  • Dementia;
  • Alzheimer's disease;
  • Neuropsychology;
  • Screening test;
  • Aging

1. Introduction

The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; ) is a well-studied brief instrument for assessing general cognitive ability in the elderly and in neurologically impaired populations. The MMSE has been shown to have acceptable reliability, , and and sensitivity for monitoring levels of cognitive impairment, and . Despite its popularity, however, the MMSE has several psychometric shortcomings, including failure to identify individuals with mild cognitive deficits, limited sensitivity to focal lesions, frequent false positive identifications of cognitive loss in individuals with low level of education, frequent false negative identifications in individuals with high levels of education, and a lack of standardized testing instructions and scoring criteria.

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