What is Cognitive status?

It

To systematically review longitudinal studies examining the association between oral health and cognitive decline.

Design

Studies published between January 1993 and March 2013 were identified by search of English language publications in PubMed/Medline using relevant Medical Subject Heading terms and title and abstract keywords and from CINAHL using relevant subject headings. After applying eligibility criteria and adding four studies identified from article references, 56 of the 1, 412 articles identified remained; 40 were cross-sectional, and 16 were longitudinal; 11 of the latter examined the effect of oral health on change in cognitive health or dementia incidence, five examined the reverse.

Setting

Sources of information included administrative data, subject evaluations in parent studies, medical and dental records, self-reports, and in-person evaluations.

Participants

Older adults.

Measurements

Most studies used subjects whose oral or cognitive status was known, using standard approaches to impute for missing information. The oral health information most frequently studied included number of teeth, periodontal and caries problems, and denture use. Cognition was most frequently evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination or according to a diagnosis of dementia.

Results

Some studies found that oral health measures such as number of teeth and periodontal disease were associated with risk of cognitive decline or incident dementia, whereas others did not find an association. Similarly, cognitive decline was not consistently associated with greater loss of teeth or number of decayed teeth. It is likely that methodological limitations play a major role in explaining the inconsistent findings.

Conclusion

It is unclear how or whether oral health and cognitive status are related. Additional research is needed in which there is greater agreement on how oral health and cognitive states are assessed to better examine the linkages between these two health outcomes.

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Q&A

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How do i sue a hospital that held me for psychiatric evaluation against my will and ny mental hygeine laws?

iI realize that you're very distraught, and it sounds like you have a right to be. I'd suggest that you contact an attorney who specializes in mental health (which really is a complicated field), who can obtain all of your files and, if necessary, have them reviewed by a psychiatrist retained on your behalf. Depending on the review, and the advise of your attorney, you'll be advised how to proceed.

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