Mini-Mental Status Exam form
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was developed as a brief screening tool to provide a quantitative assessment of cognitive impairment and to record cognitive changes over time (Folstein et al. 1975). While the tool‚Äôs original application was the detection of dementia within a psychiatric setting, its use has become widespread.
The MMSE consists of 11 simple questions or tasks. Typically, these are grouped into seven cognitive domains including orientation to time, orientation to place, registration of three words, attention and calculation, recall of three words, language, and visual construction. Administration by a trained interviewer takes approximately 10 minutes. The test yields a total score of 30 and provides a picture of a subject‚Äôs present cognitive performance based on direct observation of completion of test items/tasks. A score of 23 out of 24 is the generally accepted cut-off point indicating the presence of cognitive impairment (Dick et al. 1984). Levels of impairment have also been classified as none (24‚Äď30); mild (18‚Äď24) and severe (0‚Äď17; Tombaugh & McIntyre 1992).
An expanded version of the MMSE, the modified mini-mental state examination (3MS) was developed by Teng & Chui (1987) increasing the content, number and difficulty of items included in the assessment. The score of the 3MS ranges from 0 to 100 with a standardized cut-off point of 79/80 for the presence of cognitive impairment. This expanded assessment takes approximately 5 minutes more to administer than the original MMSE. The MMSE is available for purchase at
Advantages. The Mini-mental State Examination is brief, inexpensive and simple to administer. Its widespread use and accepted cut-off scores increase its interpretability.
Limitations. It has been suggested that the MMSE may attempt to assess too many functions in one brief test. An individual‚Äôs performance on individual items or within a single domain may be more useful than interpretation of a single score (Tombaugh & McIntyre 1992; Wade 1992). However, an acceptable cut-off for the identification of the presence of an impairment may be possible only when the test is used as a measure of ‚Äúcognitive impairment‚ÄĚ (Blake et al. 2002). Blake et al. (2002) reported that when the test is used to screen for problems of visual or verbal memory, orientation or attention acceptable cut-off scores could not be identified.
MMSE scores have been shown to be affected by age, level of education and sociocultural background (Bleecker et al. 1988; Lorentz et al. 2002; Tombaugh & McIntyre 1992). These variables may introduce bias leading to the misclassification of individuals. Though perhaps the prevalent view, such biases have not always been reported. For instance, Agrell & Dehlin (2000) found neither age nor education to influence scores. Lorentz et al. (2002) expressed concern that adjustments made for these biases may limit the general utility of the MMSE.
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