Human brain labeled diagram

Gallery of human brain diagram
Brain and Behavior
Health and Science
General Conference
Skill Level 2
Year of Introduction: 1999

1. Be able to label a diagram or a model of a human brain including the following parts and tell briefly what each part does:[edit]

The medulla controls the autonomic functions such as breathing, and heartbeat. These are things a person does not need to think about but which happen without conscious effort. The pons is a knob on the brain stem. It is part of the autonomic nervous system, and relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum.
The cerebellum plays an important role in coordinating sensory perception and motor output. It compares what the cerebrum tells the body to do with what the body actually does and makes adjustments. The midbrain relays information to higher centers of the brain. It plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement.
The thalamus can be thought of as a relay station for nerve impulses carrying sensory information into the brain. It receives these sensory inputs as well as inputs from other parts of the brain and determines which of these signals to forward to the cerebral cortex. It also plays an important role in the regulation of consciousness, sleep and alertness. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system by stimulating the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. It controls our emotions, body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, and circadian cycles.
The pituitary gland secretes hormones regulating a wide variety of bodily activities, including hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. The pituitary hormones help control growth, blood pressure, sex organ functions in both men and women, the conversion of food into energy (metabolism), and temperature regulation The cerebrum is where thinking occurs. This is the area of the brain responsible for language, memory, and emotion, as well as motor control and the sense of smell.

2. What is a neuron? Draw a picture of a typical neuron and label its parts. Where does information enter a neuron and where does information leave from?[edit]

Drawing of a Typical Neuron

Neurons (also called nerve cells) are a major class of cells in the nervous system. In vertebrates, they are found in the brain, the spinal cord and elsewhere in the nervous system. Their primary role is to process and transmit neural information. One important characteristic of neurons is that they can generate and propagate electrical signals.

Neurons are discrete cells which communicate with each other via specialized junctions. Information enters the neuron primarily through the dendrites and exits through the axon.

Neurons communicate with one another and to other cells through synapses, where the axon terminal of one cell connects to a dendrite of another.

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