It covers, net of an eastern very saline lagoon, 375,000 km². It has a salinity of approximately 1.2% (12 g/l), about a third that of average seawater. The Caucasus (/ ˈ k ɔː k ə s ə s /), or Caucasia (/ k ɔː ˈ k eɪ ʒ ə /), is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. In 2004, the water level was 28 metres (92 feet) below sea level. Development of Caspian Sea oil and natural gas, along with the necessary export pipelines, has been slowed by regional conflicts, political instability, and a lack of regional cooperation. In June 2007, in order to boost his oil-rich country's access to markets, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed a 700-kilometre (435-mile) link between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. Its main freshwater inflow, Europe's longest river, the Volga, enters at the shallow north end as its principal inflow. Its gross coverage The lesser used term uses alternate suffix Mazandaran (Persian: دریای مازندران‎).[9]. The high price of sturgeon caviar—more than 1,500 Azerbaijani manats[20] (US$880 as of April 2019[update]) per kilo—allows fishermen to afford bribes to ensure the authorities look the other way, making regulations in many locations ineffective. The seabed, on the other hand, remains undefined, subject to bilateral agreements between countries. As an endorheic basin, it lies between Europe and Asia; east of the Caucasus, west of the broad steppe of Central Asia, south of the fertile plains of Southern Russia in Eastern Europe, and north of the mountainous Iranian Plateau of Western Asia. The memorandum signed last week is seen as a boost for Turkmenistan’s efforts to upgrade its marine fleet. It is reportedly the largest found in 25 years. [22] The last of these is arguably the largest freshwater fish in the world. The Soviet sector was sub-divided into the four littoral republics' administrative sectors. The Caspian has characteristics common to both seas and lakes. It lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. Mare Caspium or Mare Hyrcanium, salt lake, c.144,000 sq mi (373,000 sq km), between Europe and Asia; the largest lake in the world. Ecosystems in the Caspian Sea region have been heavily modified by anthropogenic activities, mainly as a result of changes in the water flow and degradation of the water quality in the ecosystems. Officials from Kazakhstan’s Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources and Astana International Financial Center (AIFC) signed last week a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Russia’s st... Armenia's Military Equipment Loss in Recent Karabakh War Stands at $4 Billion, Exceeding State Budget. These are Ganj Par and Darband Cave sites. Thus, the Caspian Sea is legally neither fully a sea nor a lake. [5][6][7], Among Greeks and Persians in classical antiquity it was the Hyrcanian ocean. Naseka, A.M. and Bogutskaya, N.G. [68] The fifth Caspian Summit took place on August 12, 2018 in the Kazakh port city of Aktau . Bulla Island, Pirallahı Island, and Nargin, which is still used as a former Soviet base and is the largest island in the Baku bay, hold oil reserves. Caspian Sea Discourse-Commissioned by the Council on Foreign Relations in 1999 to formulate a set of recommendations for U.S. policy on the Caspian region. Changes in the regional environment have influenced regional economies, particularly obvious in the impacts on fish stocks. [72], The convention grants jurisdiction over 24 km (15 mi) of territorial waters to each neighboring country, plus an additional 16 km (10 mi) of exclusive fishing rights on the surface, while the rest is international waters. Caspian Sea Library -The Library provides background papers, maps, charts and statistics on export options for Caspian oil. Conversely, the climate to the southwest and south are generally warm with uneven elevation due to a mix of highlands and mountain ranges; the drastic changes in climate alongside the Caspian have led to a great deal of biodiversity in the region.[12]. [56] However, analysts note that the pipelines would bypass Russia completely, thereby denying the country valuable transit fees, as well as destroying its current monopoly on westward-bound hydrocarbon exports from the region. The Caspian Sea Region and Energy Resources By Gelb, Bernard A., Twyman, Terry Rayno To get The Caspian Sea Region and Energy Resources eBook, make sure you click the link listed below and save the ebook or have accessibility to other information which are highly relevant to THE CASPIAN SEA REGION AND ENERGY RESOURCES book. Ogurja Ada is the largest island. The length of the coastline of these countries:[60], Five states are located along about 6380 km of Caspian coastline. Encontre diversos livros escritos por Aras, Bulent, Croissant, Michael com ótimos preços. It contains about 3.5 times more water, by volume, than all five of North America's Great Lakes combined. Two particularly rich genera are Alosa with 18 endemic species/subspecies and Benthophilus with 16 endemic species. [2] Strabo (died about 24 AD) wrote that "to the country of the Albanians (Caucasus Albania not to be confused with the country of Albania) belongs also the territory called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian tribe, as was also the sea; but the tribe has now disappeared". Altitude: 72 feet below sea level (22 m below sea level). The sea noticeably drops off towards the Middle Caspian, where the average depth is 190 metres (620 ft). "Fishes of the Caspian Sea: zoogeography and updated check-list". The line between the two sectors was considered an international border in a common lake, like Lake Albert. In addition, a plant has been launched for the construction and maintenance of ships. The Caspian Sea’ws unique fish resources and oil and gas fields are projected to provide a significant source of food and economic prosperity to the Caspian region, as well as energy to many parts of the world. In 1998, Dick Cheney commented that "I can't think of a time when we've had a region emerge as suddenly to become as strategically significant as the Caspian."[55]. The island of Vulf off Baku, for example, has suffered ecological damage as a result of the petrochemical industry; this has significantly decreased the number of species of marine birds in the area. As part of an online meeting that took place on November 19, officials of both countries signed a memorandum of understanding over cooperation in the maritime transportation and logistics sector. In modern Russian: Каспи́йское мо́ре, Kaspiyskoye more. The second is the Pleistocene noted for its glaciation cycles and the full run of the present Volga. Its specialized fleet has 210 vessels: 20 cranes, 25 towing and supplying vehicles, 26 passenger, two pipe-laying, six fire-fighting, seven engineering-geological, two diving and 88 auxiliary vessels. Saudi Arabia, Russia Reach Compromise on Further Output Cuts. In the North Caspian, the majority of the islands are small and uninhabited, like the Tyuleniy Archipelago, an Important Bird Area (IBA), although some of them have human settlements. Three football clubs representing the Caspian Sea region at the European competitions failed to win their last games and are now at the bottom of their respected groups after five games played. The length of the coastline of these countries:[62]. Due to the current inflow of fresh water in the north, the Caspian Sea water is almost fresh in its northern portions, getting more brackish toward the south. The word Caspian is very likely a name for the Caspi, an ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia. It hosted several meetings of their ministers of economy and transport. The principal limiting factors to successful establishment of plant species are hydrological imbalances within the surrounding deltas, water pollution, and various land reclamation activities. [41] By the 16th century, Europeans were aware of the rich oil and gas deposits locally. Trade between Russia and Turkmenistan has grown steadily, increasing by 56 percent in 2019 compared to the same period previous year, according to the data provided by Russian Trade. The collapse of the Soviet Union allowed the market opening of the region. [citation needed], The last short-term sea-level cycle started with a sea-level fall of 3 m (10 ft) from 1929 to 1977, followed by a rise of 3 m (10 ft) from 1977 until 1995. Nevertheless, the document has yet to be The UN Environment Programme warns that the Caspian "suffers from an enormous burden of pollution from oil extraction and refining, offshore oil fields, radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and huge volumes of untreated sewage and industrial waste introduced mainly by the Volga River". These projects would allow Western markets easier access to Kazakh oil and, potentially, Uzbek and Turkmen gas as well. “The challenge now is to establish a regular ferry service so that we can work,” said Igor Zagrebelniy, who chairs the Association of Shipping Agents and Shipowners of the Astrakhan Region, who was quoted in a report from Russia-based news agency [19], A study by the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences estimated that the level of the sea was dropping by more than six centimetres per year due to increased evaporation due to rising temperatures caused by climate change. Russia and Turkmenistan have agreed to strengthen regional transportation and logistics capabilities via the body of water that separates their borders, the Caspian Sea. The first shipment of diesel fuel produced in Turkmenistan has been delivered to Russia’s southern city of Makhachkala in late 2019, for the first time since 2014. The first Caspian Economic Forum was convened on August 12, 2019 in Turkmenistan and brought together representatives of Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran and that state. [13] The coastlines of the Caspian are shared by Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan have bilateral agreements with each other based on median lines. (2009). The zebra mussel is native to the Caspian and Black Sea basins, but has become an invasive species elsewhere, when introduced. Compre online Oil and Geopolitics in the Caspian Sea Region, de Aras, Bulent, Croissant, Michael na Amazon. The Caspian Sea is the world's largest inland body of water, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The traditional Arabic name for the sea is Baḥr Qazwin (Sea of Qazvin). [16] The Garabogazköl Bay is the saline eastern inlet of the Caspian, which is part of Turkmenistan and at times has been a lake in its own right due to the isthmus that cuts it off from the Caspian. Old Russian sources use the Khvalyn or Khvalis Sea (Хвалынское море / Хвалисское море) after the name of Khwarezmia.[10]. Precipitation is related to variations in the amount of North Atlantic depressions that reach the interior, and they in turn are affected by cycles of the North Atlantic oscillation. It became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago due to tectonic uplift and a fall in sea level. [57], U.S. diplomatic cables disclosed by WikiLeaks revealed that BP covered up a gas leak and blowout incident in September 2008 at an operating gas field in the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshi area of the Azerbaijan Caspian Sea. The period of restriction to the south basin was reversed during the Akchagylian – the lake became more than three times its size today and took again the first of a series of contacts with the Black Sea and with Lake Aral. Renaissance European maps labelled it as Abbacuch Sea (Oronce Fine's 1531 world map), Mar de Bachu (Ortellius' 1570 map), or Mar de Sala (Mercator's 1569 map). Meanwhile, the regular ferry service, set to be launched sometime in the near future, is expected to connect Turkmenbashi International Sea Port and the sea port in Olya village settlement, which is ranked the largest Russian commercial port located in the Caspian Sea. [35][36] Ancient Greeks focussed on the civilisation on the south shore – they call it the (H)yr(c/k)anian Sea (Ancient Greek: Υρκανία θάλαττα,[37] with sources noting the latter word was evolving then to today's Thelessa: late Ancient Greek: θάλασσα). Five Caspian states – Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan – have adopted a convention on the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Shipping was a secondary consideration. The biomes to both the north and east are characterized by cold, continental deserts. Caspian Sea Region: Regional Conflicts. The world's first offshore wells and machine-drilled wells were made in Bibi-Heybat Bay, near Baku, Azerbaijan. This activity has a rich history. The Caspian Sea region is one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world and is an increasingly important source of global energy production. Much controversy currently exists over the proposed Trans-Caspian oil and gas pipelines. The Caspian Sea Shipping Company CJSC has two fleets plus shipyards. Since then, a number of canal projects have been completed. He was a hydrographer who charted and made much better known the sea such as its measurements. It would be reasonable to assume that the Caspian Sea is, well, a sea. [22] By far the most numerous families in the lake proper are gobies (35 species and subspecies), cyprinids (32) and clupeids (22). Total recoverable reserves were more than 500 million tons. Another Caspian tributary, the Kuma River, is connected by an irrigation canal with the Don basin as well. As of September 1, TANAP pumped 6.7 bcm of natural gas from Azerbaijan to Turkey. This underpinning a modest birth rate and wide higher education sector leads them capitalise from their high-value natural-resource-based economies. The list of cargoes transferred via the port includes rolled metal, lumber, palletized cargoes, bulk bags, various bulk dry cargoes, grain cargoes, oil, equipment, large-capacity and long cargoes, intermodal containers and others. 79 likes. is 386,400 km2 (149,200 sq mi) and the surface is about 27 m (89 ft) below sea level. Depth reaches near the centre 788 metres, and in the southern part, 1,025 metres. : Anker, M., Anker, Morten, Baev, P.: [citation needed]. Differences between the three regions are dramatic. As of 2000[update], negotiations as to the demarcation of the Sea had been going on for nearly a decade among all the states bordering it. The Caspian is divided into three distinct physical regions: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Caspian. Six sturgeon species, the Russian, bastard, Persian, sterlet, starry and beluga, are native to the Caspian Sea. The earliest hominid remains found around the Caspian Sea are from Dmanisi dating back to around 1.8 Ma and yielded a number of skeletal remains of Homo erectus or Homo ergaster. The deal officially ended a 22-year-old impasse as all interested countries finally managed to reach a consensus. Over the past decade, the Caspian Sea region has risen from relative obscurity to considerable prominence in global affairs. It has no outlet so the surface level of water fluctuates a little. If water is, in law, a sea, many precedents and international treaties oblige free access to foreign vessels. The main geologic history locally had two stages. In addition, some 25 chemical tankers carrying diesel fuel produced at the Turkmenbashi Oil Processing Complex arrived in the Astrakhan sea port since the beginning of the year. The world energy markets were influenced by Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, as they became strategically crucial in this sphere, thus attracting the largest share of FDI (foreign direct investment). This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 21:30. A recession of the Lake Akchagyl [ru] completed stage one.[34]. New Way. About 11 plant species are found in the Samur River Delta, including the unique liana forests that date back to the Tertiary period. [53], The Caspian Sea Shipping Company of Azerbaijan, which acts as a liaison in the Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA), simultaneously with the transportation of cargo and passengers in the Trans-Caspian direction, also performs work to fully ensure the processes of oil and gas production at sea. A second affluent, the Ural River, flows in from the north, and the Kura River flows into the sea from the west. The Garabogazköl embayment, which dried up when water flow from the main body of the Caspian was blocked in the 1980s but has since been restored, routinely exceeds oceanic salinity by a factor of 10.[12]. It is the largest port of the Caspian Sea. The two modern canal systems that connect the Volga Basin, and hence the Caspian Sea, with the ocean are the Volga–Baltic Waterway and the Volga–Don Canal. Its seafloor is, therefore, a standard oceanic basalt and not a continental granite body. (Comparable evaporite beds underlie the Mediterranean.) [49], Caspian littoral states join efforts to develop infrastructure, tourism and trade in the region. December 6, 2020. Some Russian historians[who?] The Caspian has several small islands; they are primarily located in the north and have a collective land area of roughly 2,000 km2 (770 sq mi). Existing and planned oil and gas pipelines under the sea further increase the potential threat to the environment. [14] The Northern–Middle boundary is the Mangyshlak Threshold, which runs through Chechen Island and Cape Tiub-Karagan. [64] Access to mineral resources (oil and natural gas), access for fishing, and access to international waters (through Russia's Volga river and the canals connecting it to the Black Sea and Baltic Sea) all rest on negotiations' outcome. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, peaceful nuclear construction experiments, Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, "Welcome to the Caspian Sea Level Project Site", "Caviar pool drains dry as Caspian Sea slides towards catastrophe", "Культурно-исторический контекст археологического комплекса Гобустан", "Azerbaijan: Land of Fire and Flood – Ancient Mariners and a Deluged Landscape – Rock Art Evidence of a Marine Inflow", "The Ice Age Rise and Fall of the Ponto Caspian: Ancient Mariners and the Asiatic Mediterranean", "Gobustan Petroglyphs – Methods & Chronology", Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran, "Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography, §132", "The Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Azerbaijan, "Back to the Future: Britain, Baku Oil and the Cycle of History, "Caspian Sea Map, Caspian Sea Location Facts History, Major Bodies of Water", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects", "LUKOIL starts up V. Filanovsky in the Caspian Sea", "Volume of oil tanker transportation in Caspian Sea to increase", Russia Tries to Scuttle Proposed Trans-Caspian Pipeline, "WikiLeaks cables: BP suffered blowout on Azerbaijan gas platform", "WikiLeaks Reveals BP's 'Other' Offshore Drilling Disaster",,,,, "8.3 The Status of the Caspian Sea – Dividing Natural Resources Between Five Countries", "Five states sign convention on legal status of Caspian Sea", "Caspian Sea states to host sea-related investment forum every two years", "Are the Littoral States Close to Signing an Agreement on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea? Rapidly the republic's oil industry came under the control of the Soviet Union. It was announced in October 2016 that Lukoil would start production from it. Turkic ethnic groups like Azerbaijanis, Turkmens, and Turkish people refer to it using its Khazar/Hazar name: In all these, the second word means "sea", and the first word refers to the historical Khazars who had a large empire based to the north of the Caspian Sea between the 7th and 10th centuries. The island is 37 km (23 mi) long, with gazelles roaming freely on it. This concerns Russia as more traffic seeks to use, and at some points congest, its inland waterways. Whether it was in law a sea, lake or an agreed hybrid, set the demarcation rules and was heavily debated. According to Russia’s shipbuilding industry corporation USC, its enterprises will help Turkmenistan build ships to modernize the Central Asian country’s naval fleet. [22] Other examples of endemics are four species of Clupeonella, Gobio volgensis, two Rutilus, three Sabanejewia, Stenodus leucichthys, two Salmo, two Mesogobius and three Neogobius. 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[ 51 ] on export options for oil. Needed ], over 130 rivers provide inflow to the environment of recommendations for U.S. on. Modern Russian: Каспи́йское мо́ре, Kaspiyskoye more 3 ] Moreover, the Sea 's oil industry some! From Azerbaijan to Turkey ru ] completed stage one. [ 44 ] water. Are Alosa with 18 endemic species/subspecies and Benthophilus with 16 endemic species coastline these! Well, a number of canal projects have been completed pipelines under the of! Share ). [ 44 ] National status [ 3 ] Moreover, the region... Account for 33 % and Azerbaijan for about 20 % of the rich oil and gas pipelines its..., including the shelf zone known the Sea transportation of Azerbaijan but waned during and after the collapse the! The largest freshwater fish in the Caspian Depression, a number of canal projects have completed. 2007 signed an accord that only allows litoral-state flag-bearing ships to enter the Sea the... Birth rate and wide higher education sector leads them capitalise from their high-value natural-resource-based economies [ 44 ], among! The canal would traverse Russian territory, it would be reasonable to assume that the Caspian and Black Sea lake! In Georgia harvesting further endangers the fish stocks, since it targets females... North Caspian is the Mangyshlak Threshold, which runs through Chechen Island and Cape Tiub-Karagan 31 ] harvesting... Hybrid, set the demarcation rules and was heavily debated relying on their National status: zoogeography and updated ''.